Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease. While MS can present itself differently for each person, its underlying biology is similar for everyone. No matter what form of MS a person is diagnosed with, disease progression is present from the start. Here, we address frequently discussed myths and misconceptions about MS, shedding light on what disease progression really means, how it affects people with MS and how to best manage it.
Understanding what disease progression in MS means for you and your health is an important step in taking an active role in managing your disease. Explore our hub to learn more about disease progression and read stories from the MS community on the importance of managing your MS early and live life to the fullest.
1. Kutzelnigg A, Lucchinetti CF, Stadelmann C, et al. Cortical demyelination and diffuse white matter injury in multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2005;128(11):2705-2712.
2. Brownlee WJ, Altmann DR, Alves Da Mota P, et al. Association of asymptomatic spinal cord lesions and atrophy with disability 5 years after a clinically isolated syndrome. Mult Scler. 2017;23(5):665-674.
3. Cree BAC, Hollenbach JA, Bove R, et al. Silent progression in disease activity-free relapsing multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2019;85(5):653-666.
4. Kappos L, Butzkueven H, Wiendl H, et al. Greater sensitivity to multiple sclerosis disability worsening and progression events using a roving versus a fixed reference value in a prospective cohort study. Mult Scler. 2018;24(7):963-973.
5. Rashid W, Davies GR, Chard DT, et al. Increasing cord atrophy in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 3 year study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77(1):51-55.
6. Giovannoni G, Cutter G, Sormani MP, et al. Is multiple sclerosis a length-dependent central axonopathy? The case for therapeutic lag and the asynchronous progressive MS hypotheses. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2017;12:70-78.
7. Trojano M., et al. (2003) The transition from relapsing–remitting MS to irreversible disability: clinical evaluation. Neurol Sci, 24(Suppl. 5): S268–S270.
8. Kremenchutzky M, Rice GP, Baskerville J, Wingerchuk DM, Ebers GC. The natural history of multiple sclerosis: a geographically based study 9:observations on the progressive phase of the disease. Brain. 2006;129(3):584-594.
9. Scalfari A, Neuhaus A, Daumer M, Ebers GC, Muraro PA. Age and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2011;77(13):1246-1252.
10. Tutuncu M, Tang J, Zeid NA, et al. Onset of progressive phase is an age-dependent clinical milestone in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2013;19(2):188-198.
11. Giovannoni, G, et al. Brain Health: Time Matters in Multiple Sclerosis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2016 Sep;9 Suppl 1:S5-S48.
12. Dutta R, Trapp BD. Relapsing and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis: insights from pathology. Curr Opin Neurol. 2014;27(3):271-278.
13. Krieger SC, Sumowski J. New insights into multiple sclerosis clinical course from the topographical model and functional reserve. Neurol Clin. 2018;36(1):13-25.
14. Kavaliunas A, Manouchehrinia A, Stawiarz L, et al. Importance of early treatment initiation in the clinical course of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2017;23(9):1233-1240.