3Rs means Reduce, Refine and Replace and refers to a range of initiatives that guarantee that animal welfare meets the highest standards and that the minimum number of animal studies is used during our research activities. The 3Rs were first described in 1959 by two English scientists William Russell and Rex Burch. The 3Rs are defined as Replacing animal tests where possible, Reducing the number of animals required and Refining existing procedures. Although the 3Rs were introduced more than 50 years ago, globally scientists and animal laboratory staff continue to improve the approaches to the use of animals in research. Using the 3Rs helps to ensure that animals are only used when they are indispensable to gain critical scientific knowledge to develop future medicines. While some amount of animal tests are required by regulatory authorities, we strive to substitute animal use whenever possible with equivalent in vitro assays in cells or simpler organisms. Outstanding achievements in this area are honored with the 3Rs Award in Roche.