About cardiovascular and metabolism diseases

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With increasing incidence and the high cost of care of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, early diagnosis and improved treatment options are vitally important to clinicians, healthcare systems and, above all, to patients.

Unfortunately, not only the aging population of the developed world, but also aging populations in the emerging markets have increasing incidents of conditions such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, atherosclerosis and cardiac diseases.

Cardiovascular disease is often grouped with metabolic disorders because it is frequently a consequence of diabetes and dyslipidemia.

Used in conjunction with clinical information the rapid and accurate testing of cardiac markers is crucial especially in acute cases where every minute counts. Roche is market leader in cardiac biomarkers and remains dedicated to cardiology research with major advances in early diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Cardiovascular diseases

CVDs are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and include:

  • coronary heart disease – disease of the vessels supplying blood to the heart;
  • cerebrovascular disease - disease of the vessels supplying blood to the brain;
  • peripheral arterial disease – disease of vessels supplying blood to the arms and legs;

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health problem across the world, accounting for 30 % of all deaths. Thus, CVD is a health problem that demands a global approach to prevention, early detection, and monitoring of the progression of the disease.

Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) are usually caused by coronary heart disease and strokes by cerebrovascular disease. Both are usually acute events and are mainly caused by blockage of an artery that prevents blood from flowing to the heart or brain. The most common reason for this is atherosclerosis, a build-up of fatty and cellular deposits on the inner walls of the arteries.

Heart failure (HF) is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Detection in its early stages and appropriate treatment are key objectives in improving quality of life. Patients with HF – especially with mild symptoms – are often not diagnosed. On the other hand, many patients with suspected heart failure are unnecessarily referred to echocardiography.

Roche offers a wide range of diagnostic tests to help in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and venous thromboembolism (DVT and PE).

Metabolic diseases

Metabolism refers to any chemical reaction taking place in the body that, as defined by the National Institute of Health, converts or uses energy. Metabolic diseases/disorders disrupt normal metabolism, and include diabetes (abnormal sugar metabolism) and dyslipidemia (abnormal lipid metabolism). Metabolic diseases/disorders can be considered to be either primary (genetic) or secondary to lifestyle and environment, medication, or concomitant diseases/disorders. Metabolic diseases/disorders encompass a broader range of defined biochemical reactions than metabolic syndrome, which is defined by a specific group of risk factors.

Diabetes is the most common metabolic disease. There are two types of diabetes: type 1, the cause of which is unknown—although there can be a genetic factor—and type 2, which can be acquired, or potentially caused by genetic factors as well.

Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. cholesterol and/or fat) in the blood. In developed countries, most dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood. This is often due to diet and lifestyle.

Metabolic syndrome is a medical term which defines a cluster of the most dangerous risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It affects 25% of the adult world population. These risk factors include elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure and elevated fasting glucose. The metabolic syndrome is diagnosed if three or more of the five above mentioned risk factors are present.

Through a complete test portfolio specific to metabolism, as well as through self-testing solutions for patients, Roche is the market leader in diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes and metabolic disorders.

Coagulation and Hemostasis

Coagulation is a complex process by which the blood forms clots to block and then heal a lesion/wound/cut and stop the bleeding. It is a crucial part of hemostasis - stopping blood loss from damaged blood vessels. However, blood moving through your blood vessels should not clot. If such clots form they can travel through your bloodstream to your heart, lungs, or brain, causing a heart attack or stroke.

Coagulation tests measure your blood’s ability to clot, as well as how long it takes. Testing can help your doctor assess your risk of excessive bleeding or developing clots (thrombosis) somewhere in your blood vessels.

Blood thinners or anticoagulation therapy is usually prescribed to patients who have suffered atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, or who have mechanical heart valves. Carefully monitoring the correct dosage of oral anticoagulants such as Warfarin is crucial to avoid complications.

Roche offers solutions for healthcare professionals in the fields of Coagulation and Hemostasis testing, and for patients in the self-management of oral anticoagulation therapy.