All shares in the Company are bearer shares, and for this reason the Company does not keep a register of shareholders. The following figures are based on information from shareholders, the shareholder validation check at the Annual General Meeting of 14 March 2017 and on other information available to the Company.
At 31 December 2016 and 2015, based on information supplied to the Group, a shareholder group with pooled voting rights owned 72,018,000 shares, which represented 45.01% of the issued shares. This group consisted of Ms Vera Michalski-Hoffmann, Ms Maja Hoffmann, Mr André Hoffmann, Dr Andreas Oeri, Ms Sabine Duschmalé-Oeri, Ms Catherine Oeri, Mr Jörg Duschmalé, Mr Lukas Duschmalé and the charitable foundation Wolf. The shareholder pooling agreement has existed since 1948. The figures above do not include any shares without pooled voting rights that are held outside this group by individual members of the group. Ms Maja Oeri, formerly a member of the pool, now holds 8,091,900 shares representing 5.057% of the voting rights independently of the pool.
At 31 December 2016, based on information supplied to the Group, 53,332,863 shares (2015: 53,332,863 shares) are owned by Novartis Holding AG, Basel (participation below 33 1⁄3%).