Controlling shareholders

At 31 December 2018 and 2017, based on information supplied to the Group, a shareholder group with pooled voting rights owned 72,018,000 shares, which represented 45.01% (2017: 45.01%) of the issued shares. This group consisted of Ms Vera Michalski-Hoffmann, Ms Maja Hoffmann, Mr André Hoffmann, Dr Andreas Oeri, Ms Sabine Duschmalé-Oeri, Ms Catherine Oeri, Mr Jörg Duschmalé, Mr Lukas Duschmalé and the charitable foundation Wolf. The shareholder pooling agreement has existed since 1948. The figures above do not include any shares without pooled voting rights that are held outside this group by individual members of the group. Ms Maja Oeri, formerly a member of the pool, now holds 8,091,900 shares representing 5.057% of the voting rights independently of the pool.

At 31 December 2018, based on information supplied to the Group, 53,332,863 shares (2017: 53,332,863 shares) are owned by Novartis Holding AG, Basel (participation below 33 1⁄3%).