Benign or malignant brownish or bluish change in the skin and mucous membranes and of the connective tissue under these; this may be flat or shaped like a knot. It can grow over a large area or form several small foci and can also spread to internal organs (liver, spleen, bones, brain i.a.).
Forms: Kaposi syndrome in patients with advanced stages of HIV disease (AIDS): Malignant form, which often starts in the area of the oral cavity and on the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Internal organs and lymph nodes are often attacked. Transplantation-associated Kaposi syndrome: Occurs in patients who, after an organ transplantation, have been treated with drugs which weaken the immune system and which hinder the rejection of the transplanted organ. It can recover after the drug has been discontinued. Chronic Kaposi syndrome: Predominantly in men from Eastern Europe and Italy, the so-called classical form. It remains mostly restricted to the arms and legs and only rarely spreads to other areas of the skin or to internal organs. Lymphadenopathy-associated Kaposi syndrome: Frequently occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. Form may have a benign or malignant clinical course.
Collective term for compounds which arise by the breakdown of fats (lipolysis) and some aminoacids. Increased formation of ketone bodies occurs, for example, when there is insulin deficiency (diabetes mellitus, mostly type 1 diabetes), increased concentrations of glucagon or hunger. Ketone bodies can be detected in urine (see ketonuria).
Urinary excretion of ketone bodies, which are metabolic products of the breakdown of fatty acids and aminoacids.
Occurrence Particularly in diabetes mellitus (mostly type 1 diabetes), also when there is protracted vomiting, hunger or predominantly fatty nutrition, fever, after operations and to maintain pH equilibrium when the blood pH is high (alkalosis).
Cause Low levels of the storage carbohydrate glycogen in the liver as a result of failure of carbohydrate metabolism. Instead of glycogen, fatty acids and aminoacids are metabolised.
the unit for a molecules weight, especially used for proteins; one kilodalton equals 1000 daltons
Turbulence sound which occurs at the same time as the pulse and which develops on the far side of the cuff while the cuff pressure is being reduced during indirect measurement of blood pressure. It shows the upper limit of the systolic blood pressure and is markedly quieter during diastolic pressure.
Type of respiration which is named after the internal physician Adolf Kussmaul (1822-1902). Characterised by normal or low frequency respiration with rhythmic and abnormally deep breaths. This balances excessive acidification of arterial blood (acidosis), e.g. in diabetic coma, with increased expiration of carbon dioxide.
Glossary entries: Roche and Walter de Gruyter, Berlin
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